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Exploring the Key Differences: Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steel
Time: 2024-02-28
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Stainless steel, as an important metal material, is widely used in various fields because of its excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.

According to its physical phase structure is divided into austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, martensitic stainless steel, duplex stainless steel and precipitation hardening stainless steel five.

Among them, austenitic and martensitic stainless steel are widely used, although they all belong to the stainless steel, but in terms of composition, performance and application there are significant differences, we will through this article for you to talk about in detail.

We will start from the following aspects:

  • Differences in ingredients
  • Performance difference
  • Differences in application areas

Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steel

Ⅰ Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Composition Differences

Austenitic stainless steels, also known as austenitic stainless steels, contain mainly high levels of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni), and often small amounts of carbon (C), manganese (Mn), and silicon (Si).

It includes the famous 18Cr-8Ni steel and the high Cr-Ni series steel developed by increasing the Cr and Ni content and adding Mo, Cu, Si, Nb, Ti and other elements on this basis.
Industrial grades can be divided into two types: Cr-Ni (300 series) and Cr-Ni-Mn-N (200 series).

Martensitic stainless steel, or martensitic stainless steel, is a type of stainless steel that can be hardened.
It mainly contains chromium, carbon and a small amount of other alloying elements, such as nickel, molybdenum, etc. Compared to austenitic stainless steel, it has a higher carbon content and can obtain higher hardness and strength by heat treatment under certain conditions. and magnetic.

Martensitic stainless steel Austenitic stainless steel
Main alloying elements: The main alloying element is chromium Mainly chromium, nickel alloy
Carbon content: high carbon content Low carbon content
Microstructure features: It has high strength and hardness. It is highly corrosive and formable.
Application: Production of tools, cutting tools and turbines, etc. Food and beverage industry, chemical processing and medical devices, etc.


Is it magnetic? This stainless steel is magnetic. Not magnetic
Common brand: 1Cr13、2Cr13、3Cr13、4Cr13 1Cr18Ni9Ti、0Cr18Ni9(304)、00Cr18Ni9Ti(304L)、0Cr17Ni12Mo2(316)、00Cr17Ni14Mo2(316L)、0Cr18Ni11Ti(321)、0Cr18Ni11Nb(347)

Ⅱ Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Performance Characteristics

(1) Austenite stainless steels have excellent toughness, ductility, non-magnetism and corrosion resistance, but their strength is low and can only be strengthened by cold working.

It can maintain stability in a variety of environments and is not easy to deform or corrode, so it has a wide range of applications in chemical, medical, food and other fields.

(2) Martensitic stainless steels are mainly low-carbon or high-carbon steels with a chromium content in the range of 12%-18%. There are three types of martensitic stainless steel grades widely used in various countries:

  • Low carbon and medium carbon 13% Cr steel
  • High carbon 18% Cr steel
  • Low-carbon 17% Cr steel containing nickel (about 2%)

stainless steel

This stainless steel is known for its high strength and corrosion resistance. It can be used to make machine parts such as blades of steam turbines (1Cr13), shafts and tie rods of steam equipment (2Cr13), and parts that work in corrosive media such as valves, bolts, etc. (4Cr13). Steel grades with higher carbon content (4Cr13, 9Cr18) are suitable for the manufacture of medical devices, table knives, measuring tools, springs, etc.

In addition, it can also obtain excellent mechanical properties such as high strength, high wear resistance and good fatigue resistance through heat treatment.

Ⅲ Application Fields

(1) Because austenitic stainless steel has good corrosion resistance and toughness, it is often used to manufacture equipment or components that need to withstand corrosive environments, such as chemical pipelines, storage tanks, medical equipment, etc. In addition, austenitic stainless steel is also widely used in food processing, kitchenware production and other fields.

Austenitic 304 stainless steel plate. The material is said to bring strong rust and corrosion resistance, as well as excellent plasticity and toughness, making it easy to stamp and form. The density of 304 stainless steel is 7.93 grams/cubic centimeter. It is a very common stainless steel and is also called 18/8 stainless steel in the industry. Its metal products are resistant to high temperatures and have good processing properties, so they are widely used in industry, furniture decoration industry, food and medical industries.

(2) Due to its high strength and wear resistance, martensitic stainless steel is often used in applications that need to withstand high loads or wear, such as automotive engine parts, mechanical parts, cutting tools, etc. In addition, it is also used in the construction field to make structural parts such as bridges and highway guardrails.

Austenitic stainless steels Chemical pipelines, food processing, kitchenware production, food medical and other fields, etc.
Martensitic stainless steel Automobile engine parts, bridges, kilometer guardrails and other structural parts, etc.

Although austenitic and martensitic stainless steel both belong to the stainless steel family, they have obvious differences in composition, performance and application. Therefore, when choosing stainless steel materials, you need to choose the appropriate type according to the specific application environment and requirements.

Quanshuo Metal Materials is a manufacturer that has passed ISO9001:2015, TUV, SGS, and CE certification. TUV, SGS, and CE certification. It mainly produces Stainless Steel, etc., with an annual output of 300,000 tons. Looking forward to your inquiry.

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+86 13027616811